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Beginner's Guide to Kobe Beef

By Georgie Morgan
October 10, 2019
Updated: October 7, 2020

Beginner’s Guide to Kobe Beef

Kobe is the capital of Hyōgo Prefecture and is one of Japan’s ten largest cities. It might not be as known as its Kansai neighbors, Osaka and Kyoto, but that doesn’t mean it’s any less attractive. Situated between both mountains and sea, Kobe is one of Japan’s most cosmopolitan cities. The city was one of the first in Japan to be opened to international foreign trade in the 19th century. The main thing that attracts most people to Kobe is the world-renowned Kobe beef, arguably the best in the world. So, here’s some background information that you (probably) didn’t know about Kobe beef.

Common Misconceptions About Japanese Kobe Beef

“The cows listen to classical music like Elgar, Mozart, and Bach to relax them while they eat!”

“They have massages daily with sake to increase the marbling of the meat!”

“They’re given beer to increase their appetite!”

I’m sure when talking about Kobe beef with your friends some of these statements have mentioned. Disappointingly, although these rumors create quite the image in one’s head, there is no evidence to suggest any of these techniques are used, or that they improve the texture, marbling or flavor of the Kobe meat itself. 

A plate of thinly sliced folded Kobe beef for shabu shabu

A Brief History of Kobe Beef

Kobe beef is one of several breeds of wagyu, and arguably the most well-known internationally. It is made from purebred Tajima cattle which have a high concentration of soft fat marbling throughout the meat. This fat has a low melting point which when cooked, results in some of the most tender and juicy melt-in-your-mouth meat that is so desired across the world. The cows were first introduced as work cattle used for rice cultivation and agriculture around the 2nd Century. Although it has been around for centuries, it only really started to gain international popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. 

Wagyu vs Kobe Beef

So, what is the difference between wagyu and Kobe beef? Both are frequently used to reference some of the highest quality meat available, but they aren’t the same thing. Wagyu is a term used to refer to Japanese cattle, and that means any type of Japanese cattle. Wagyu is not a breed in its own right, contrary to popular belief, and it also doesn’t have any relevance to quality. When someone references “wagyu steak” or “wagyu meat” it simply means meat from a Japanese cow. There are four breeds of Japanese cow: Japanese ShorthornJapanese BlackJapanese Brown and Japanese Poll. Japanese Black strains of cattle include Tajima, Tottori, and Okayama, which make up 90 percent of all fattened cattle in Japan.

Only the meat from Japanese Black Tajima cow, which originates from Kobe, that carries a full lineage and quality criteria can be qualified as Kobe beef. Due to this, all Kobe beef is classified as wagyu beef, but only a small proportion of wagyu beef is Kobe beef. Only 0.06 percent of beef consumed in Japan is Kobe beef. 

Two cuts of raw Kobe and wagyu beef on a wooden cutting board

Wagyu Grading System

There is a grading system for wagyu beef which, to the untrained eye, might not make any sense. There are two categories: yield grade and quality grade.

Yield Grade

The yield grade relates to the cutability of the meat. This refers to the proportion of meat that can be obtained from the cow such as loin, rib, and chuck.

Grade A: Above Standard

Grade B: Standard

Grade C: Below Standard

Quality Grade 

The quality grade is evaluated through four different categories: the color and brightness of the meat, the quality of the fat, the marbling of fat, and the firmness and texture. After these have been assessed the meat is awarded a number in relation to their quality.

5: Excellent

4: Good

3: Average

2: Below Average

1: Poor

Beef Marble Score (BMS)

Along with the previous grading system, there is an additional one regarding the marbling score, for an even finer degree of accuracy, from 1-12. 

5: Excellent 8 - 12

4: Good 5 - 7

3: Average 3 - 4

2: Below Average 2

1: Poor 1

A pair of chopsticks holding a piece of cooked Kobe beefsteak

So, A5 with a BMS of 5-12 is the rarest and highest quality grade of beef you can get. For wagyu beef to be classified as Kobe beef it must have a yield and quality score of A4 or A5 along with being born and raised in the Hyōgo Prefecture in Japan, a steer (castrated bull) or virgin cow and of the purebred Tajima lineage. It must have only been fed grasses and grains and slaughtered within the prefecture and have a gross carcass weight of 470kg or less. 

After all of these requirements are met, it is assigned a 10-digit ID number so that its authenticity can be traced back to the individual cow when sold, everything from its birth record, ownership, and genetic lineage can be traced via this ID number. 

With all of these requirements, it’s no surprise that Kobe beef is some of the most expensive meat in the world!

Cooking Kobe Beef

Kobe beef is usually served thinly sliced or cooked teppanyaki style, on a piping hot plate. It can also be enjoyed in a classic steak form or shabu shabu (thin slices cooked in a boiling broth), in carpaccio form (raw sashimi) and sukiyaki (Japanese hot pot). 

A man with chopsticks dipping a piece of raw kobe beef into a shabu shabu

Notable Kobe Beef Restaurants 

  1. Mouriya 
  2. Steak Aoyama 
  3. Aragawa 

1. Mouriya 

Mouriya is one of the most well-known restaurants in Kobe, offering A4 and A5 beef that is prepared right in front of the diner’s eyes. If you’re on a budget, they also offer some cheaper alternatives and have almost every cut available. Mouriya has five branches in total but they all get quite booked up so it’s best to make a reservation before you go. 

2. Steak Aoyama 

This family-run restaurant has been around for over 53 years and there’s a reason for that; the quality of their food is some of the best in town. The staff at Aoyama pay attention to the smallest of details and can speak fluent English. 

3. Aragawa 

Aragawa has received a lot of recognition for its food and won some awards. The cuisine is primarily western, but with a Japanese flair. They carefully select the best Kobe there is and if you are beefed out (if there is such a thing) they are also very particular about their seafood, too. If you are on a budget however, this might not be the place for you as the price tag can get quite high.

To learn more about wagyu beef check out our post, Japanese Wagyu Beef: The Forbidden Meat or browse wagyu experiences in Japan!

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Georgie Morgan
Georgie is a photography enthusiast, ramen obsessed and a self-confessed travel addict. She has visited 49 countries and counting and enjoys eating her way around the world trying unique foods that are specific to each country and region she visits. She hates breakfast food, loves spicy food and can eat eight tacos in two minutes.
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